11 November 1918, Armistice Day, Emperor Wilhelm II, European royal families, Familia regala, First World War, Habsburg, King George V, Leaders, Primul Razboi mondial, Regele Ferdinand, Regina Maria, Royalty, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, World War One, Zog I
At the end of the First World War Europe changed its political configuration, new states appearing on the map in the aftermath of the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian empires.
Bulgaria, a defeated country, has maintained its monarchical form of state, but the tsar Ferdinand forced by the Allies abdicated in 1918 in favour of his son Boris III. Greece also a winner in the war, has swung between the monarchical and republican regimes. Here the monarchy survived until 1924 when a short-lived republic was proclaimed; in 1935 through a military coup and a plebiscite the monarchy was reinstalled and King George II regained the throne. Albania regained its independence in 1920. The monarchy was maintained with a Regency since 1914 when the prince of Wied renounced at the leadership of the country. In 1925 it was proclaimed a republic and a local chieftain, Ahmed Zogu, was elected president. Albania was proclaimed monarchy in 1928 and Zogu declared himself King Zog I.
After the fall of the tsar’s empire, the new Soviet Union emerged, and for a while the Bolshevik regime threatened to take over in Hungary and Germany. The Hungarian soviet republic of Bela Kun was quickly defeated in 1919 by the Romanian army.
On European thrones fundamental changes thus took place in Germany where the Kaiser was forced to abdicate in November 1918. Wilhelm II sought exile in Netherlands, a neutral power in the war, where he lived for the rest of his life. In Austro-Hungary Karl of Habsburg, emperor of Austria and king of Hungary (under the name of Charles IV) abdicated in 1918 and went into exile in Switzerland. The newly created states of Austria and Hungary adopted constitutions and special laws which abolished the right of succession for the Habsburgs. The peace treaties did not include reference to the House of Austria and its problems. But in February 1920 at the Conference of ambassadors, Alliate Powers declared that they will not accept a Habsburg restoration. After some unsuccessfully attempts to regain the throne in Hungary in March and October 1921 Karl went in exile in Madeira where he died in 1922.
From among all monarchs the most tragically fate was that of tsar Nicholas II and his family who were murdered by the Bolsheviks.
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